Audio/Video Multimedia


Recording devices such as mobile phones, webcams, and camcorders are becoming commonplace in everyday lives; consequently learners’ and educators’ are inadvertently acquiring recording and presentation skills. Educational potential of augmenting teaching and learning with audio/visual content is increasingly being realised as recording devices and distribution methods become more and more user friendly.

Pedagogical Value and Theory

Video recordings such as demonstrations of clinical and technical procedures provide opportunities to improve learning through observation. This type of learning supports empiricism, the theory that knowledge is acquired through the senses and Bandura’s (1977) observational learning theory (also known as social learning theory) that learning occurs through observation of others. Bandura suggests a four step process, where attention, retention, reproduction and motivation promote learning.

Audio feedback for formative and summative assessments is being trialled by educationalists with the intention of capturing student interest. Studies have shown that some students find personal verbal feedback easier to digest than textual feedback. Trimingham and Simmons (2009) suggest that audio feedback possibly plays an important role in the Kolb learning cycle (1984), where reflections on experience and feedback from others are used to process and integrate new ideas with existing ones, thus applying the newly formulated/improved understanding to future work.

Examples of Use at Middlesex

Tabitha Lewis (HSSC) videos of student symposium presentations used as an exemplar for new students
Palitha Serasinghe (HSSC) audio recordings of Sanskrit verses used to aid pronunciation and learning
Helen Hingley-Jones (HSSC) audio feedback for student assessments
MBA in Shipping and Logistics (BS) videos of staff introductions to distance learning students and explanations of different theories

Support and Documentation

For support and guidance in incorporating audio/video in teaching and learning contact:
If you would like to give your students audio feedback, please contact or

Resources and External Links

Use of Video:

Barratt, J. (2009). "A focus group study of the use of video-recorded simulated objective structured clinical examinations in nurse practitioner education." Nurse Education in Practice 10(3): 170-175. [Article Link through Science Direct: doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2005.07.002 (Requires Athens Authentication)].

Corbally, M. A. (2005). "Considering video production? Lessons learned from the production of a blood pressure measurement video." Nurse Education in Practice 5(6): 375-379. [Article Link through Science Direct: doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2005.04.003 (Requires Athens Authentication)].

Frank, M. S. and R. B. Gunderman (2004). "New opportunities for the use of digital video in on-line radiologic curricula1." Academic Radiology 11(10): 1144-1148. [Article Link through Science Direct: doi:10.1016/j.acra.2004.07.004 (Requires Athens Authentication)].

Palmer, S. (2007). "An evaluation of streaming digital video resources in on- and off-campus engineering management education." Computers & Education 49(2): 297-308. [Article Link through Science Direct: doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2005.07.002 (Requires Athens Authentication)].

Fujita, W.C (no date) 'Observational (Social) Learning Theory.' [Online]. Available from: (accessed 28 march 2010).

Kearsley, G (no date) 'Social Learning Theory (A. Bandura)', The Theory Into Practice Database. Website: (accessed: 28th March 2010).

Use of Audio Feedback:

Trimingham, R. and Simmons, P. (2009) ‘Using audio technology for student feedback: JISC audio mini-project case study.’ [Online]. Available from: (accessed 28 March 2010).

Sounds Good: Quicker, better assessment using audio feedback Project Website: (accessed 28 March 2010).

Student Audio Feedback: What, why and how, MASHe, The Higher Education blog from the JISC RSC Scotland North & East Website: (accessed 28 March 2010).